Impact of national‑scale targeted point‑of‑care symptomatic lateral flow testing on trends in COVID‑19 infections, hospitalisations and deaths during the second epidemic wave in Austria (REAP3)

Reitzinger, StephanieORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9063-1794; Czypionka, ThomasORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3381-1075; Lammel, Oliver; Panovska-Griffiths, Jasmina and Leber, Werner (2023) Impact of national‑scale targeted point‑of‑care symptomatic lateral flow testing on trends in COVID‑19 infections, hospitalisations and deaths during the second epidemic wave in Austria (REAP3). BMC Public Health (23), 506. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-023-15364-w

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Abstract

Background
In October 2020, amidst the second COVID-19 epidemic wave and before the second-national lockdown, Austria introduced a policy of population-wide point-of-care lateral flow antigen testing (POC-LFT). This study explores the impact of this policy by quantifying the association between trends in POC-LFT-activity with trends in PCR-positivity (as a proxy for symptomatic infection), hospitalisations and deaths related to COVID-19 between October 22 and December 06, 2020.

Methods
We stratified 94 Austrian districts according to POC-LFT-activity (number of POC-LFTs performed per 100,000 inhabitants over the study period), into three population cohorts: (i) high(N = 24), (ii) medium(N = 45) and (iii) low(N = 25). Across the cohorts we a) compared trends in POC-LFT-activity with PCR-positivity, hospital admissions and deaths related to COVD-19; b) compared the epidemic growth rate before and after the epidemic peak; and c) calculated the Pearson correlation coefficients between PCR-positivity with COVID-19 hospitalisations and with COVID -19 related deaths.

Results
The trend in POC-LFT activity was similar to PCR-positivity and hospitalisations trends across high, medium and low POC-LFT activity cohorts, with association with deaths only present in cohorts with high POC-LFT activity. Compared to the low POC-LFT-activity cohort, the high-activity cohort had steeper pre-peak daily increase in PCR-positivity (2.24 more cases per day, per district and per 100,000 inhabitants; 95% CI: 2.0–2.7; p < 0.001) and hospitalisations (0.10; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.18; p = 0.014), and 6 days earlier peak of PCR-positivity. The high-activity cohort also had steeper daily reduction in the post-peak trend in PCR-positivity (-3.6; 95% CI: -4.8, -2.3; p < 0.001) and hospitalisations (-0.2; 95% CI: -0.32, -0.08; p = 0.001). PCR-positivity was positively correlated to both hospitalisations and deaths, but with lags of 6 and 14 days respectively.

Conclusions
High POC-LFT-use was associated with increased and earlier case finding during the second Austrian COVID-19 epidemic wave, and early and significant reduction in cases and hospitalisations during the second national lockdown. A national policy promoting symptomatic POC-LFT in primary care, can capture trends in PCR-positivity and hospitalisations. Symptomatic POC-LFT delivered at scale and combined with immediate self-quarantining and contact tracing can thus be a proxy for epidemic status, and hence a useful tool that can replace large-scale PCR testing.

Item Type: Article in Academic Journal
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, Symptomatic lateral flow testing, Statistical analysis
Funders: European Union (Horizon 2020)
Research Units: Current Research Groups > Health Economics and Health Policy
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 17 Mar 2023 08:19
Last Modified: 24 Jan 2024 09:02
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-023-15364-w
ISSN: 1471-2458
URI: https://irihs.ihs.ac.at/id/eprint/6507

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